Addressing the Issue of Additive Manufacture Supply Chain Counterfeit Market

X-Ray or Neutron
Supply Chain Counterfeit

The business plan is to immediately address the extensive problem that exists in the additive manufactured (AM) supply chain counterfeit market. To differentiate between a counterfeit or authentic component in the AM market, RI has developed a technology process to embed “invisible ink” into AM manufactured components.

Problem: Counterfeit supply chain is both an economic and safety issue. Counterfeit additive manufactured (AM) commodity parts are a $300 billion-dollar annual issue. Federal Aviation Administration found over 3,000 counterfeit parts on aircraft in the past 10 years that potentially contributed to incidents. Lockheed Martin discovered more than 1.5 million suspect and potentially counterfeit parts in inventory. A successfully implemented holistic, end-to-end technological process for counterfeit detection and provenance to mitigate AM supply chain risk is not currently available.

Solution: In additive manufactured (AM) components, RI has a procedural technology to encode digital information inside apart at its manufacture, without inserting any foreign materials, or change to the printer functionality, or changing to the part’s mechanical integrity. This “invisible ink” inserted into the part will be digital code with texture; the texture cannot be imaged with traditional X-ray or Computed Tomography (CT). X-ray interferometry reads the texture and securely transmits the image data to the blockchain with smart contracts. This “Trust Anchor” or “fingerprint” embedded into the component will authentic the part and it can be tracked through its entire life cycle, from installation, maintenance, to end-of-life.

The beauty and problem with additive manufacturing.
The beauty and problem with additive manufacturing.


  • All High-value AM Parts Are X-Ray at Manufacture:
  • Interferometry Is a Simple Add-on to Existing Radiography.
  • Database of SN + Texture: Secure Smart Contract to Blockchain - Proof-of-authentication.
  • Provenance: AM Parts Are X-rayedat Maintenance. Blockchain Updated.
  • Attack Vector Resistance: X-ray Interferometry Performed With Challenge/Response Sequence.
  • Scalable: Low-cost with conventional X-ray. Moderate cost, high security with interferometry.


  • Secure and Traceable Trust Anchor for Each Part. Blockchain Cannot Be Altered, Removed, or Replaced
  • AM Part Can Be Tracked From Production Through Fabrication, Installation, Replacement, and Retirement.
  • Procedure Expandable to Casting or Injection Molding of Commodity Parts With on-demand Inspection.
Redefined Imaging

Embedded Digital Codes

An X-ray image of an M18 castle nut with an embedded Cantor dust fractal.

The fractal enables rapid testing of the AM printer resolution for encoding a trust anchor within a part.

A 450 kV X-ray tomography showing conventional X-Ray imaging cannot detect the order=3 Cantor dust fractal, but interferometry can detect.